A deprived child case is one in which the State alleges that one or both parents are defective as parents by reason of either an intentional or neglectful action or omission.
Reasons are usually something like:
Failure to Protect from one of the above
This is a very general list and the allegations made by the State are usually much more specific.
These cases are very often caused by the police showing up and seeing things they disapprove of; they then call the OKDHS and then OKDHS does an investigation. Sometimes the kids are immediately removed and sometimes they are not until after at least some portion of the investigation is complete.
If the defect is not too bad then the State will generally try to rehabilitate the parents with the goal of reuniting them with the children in the same household.
If the defect is horrible (for instance, child sexual abuse) then the State will very often move to terminate the parents rights. Termination may also be attempted when the accused parent fails to clean up their act.
In Oklahoma, the Court will generally appoint counsel for indigent parents.